Nicodemus was the first community in Graham County, Kansas, to establish a school district and school. The existing school building was constructed in 1918 after a fire destroyed its predecessor. The single-story wood-frame school is square in plan with a wood-shingle-hipped roof. A porch on the east elevation marks the main entry to the building. The school property also contains a one-story gabled roofed shed. A large playground and open space surround the structures.
The schoolhouse is preserved as a National Historic Site by the National Park System.